16-Bit Color: A display or system that uses 16 bits of color data to represent each pixel. In 16-bit color, each pixel has 16 bits assigned to it, representing 65 thousand (65,536) possible colors. 16-bit color is often referred to as "High Color", or "Thousands of Colors".
1-Bit Color: The lowest number of colors per pixel in which a graphics file can be stored. In 1-bit color, each pixel is either black or white. In 1-bit color, each pixel has 1 bit assigned to it, representing 2 possible colors, black or white.
24-Bit Color: A display or system that uses 24 bits of color data to represent each pixel. In 24-bit color, each pixel has 24 bits assigned to it, representing 16.7 million (16,777,216) possible colors. 8 bits (one byte) is assigned to each of the red, green, and blue components of a pixel. 24-bit color is often referred to as "True Color", or "Millions of Colors".
32-Bit: Color A display or system that uses 32 bits of color data to represent each pixel. 32-bit color embodies 24-bit pixels with an additional 8-bit alpha (information) channel. 32-bit color is often referred to as "True Color" (same as 24-bit, sorry), or "Millions of Colors+".
8-Bit Color: A display or graphics system that allocates 8 bits to represent each pixel, representing 256 possible colors. In 8-bit color, each pixel has eight bits assigned to it. 8-bit color is often referred to as simply "256 colors".
8-Bit Grayscale: A display or graphics system that allocates 8 bits to represent each pixel, representing 256 possible shades of gray. In 8-bit grayscale, each pixel is has eight bits assigned to it, providing 256 shades of gray.
A/D Converter:
Analog-to-Digital Converter. Any device that converts analog information (a photograph or video frame) into a series of digits that a computer can store and manipulate.
Access Time:The time required for a data storage device to locate and retrieve data
Active Pixel Sensor Technology: CMOS APS technology offers significant benefits over alternative technologies for several reasons. The primary reasons are cost, level of integration, power consumption, and ease of design in at the camera level. APS is a natural development/outgrowth of CMOS-based cameras. The APS (variant to CMOS) offers reduced fixed-pattern noise as well as reduced dark-current which enhances signal-to-noise ratio. This simply means better image quality.
Active-Matrix Display: Also known as Thin-Film Transistor (TFT) display, a liquid crystal display (LCD) technology used in digital cameras that provides crisp, vivid images.
Additive Colors: Red, Green, and Blue are referred to as additive colors. Red + Green + Blue = White
Algorithm: The specific process in a computer program used to solve a particular problem.
Aliasing:An effect caused by sampling an image (or signal) at too low a rate. It makes rapid change (high texture) areas of an image appear as a slow change in the sample image. Once aliasing occurs, there is no way to accurately reproduce the original image from the sampled image.
Analog or Conventional Camera: A traditional film-based camera.
Anti-Aliasing: The process of reducing stair-stepping by smoothing edges where individual pixels are visible
Aperture: The lens opening, which allows light to expose the digital camera's image sensor. It can be fixed or adjustable and is calibrated in F-stop numbers. The larger the number, the smaller the lens opening. The aperture determines how much light is allowed to pass onto the film of a 35mm camera or onto the digital array of a digital camera while the shutter is open.
Application: A computer software program designed to meet a specific need.
APS: Advanced Photo System. A photographic system developed jointly by Kodak, Canon, Fuji, Minolta, and Nikon and launched in April 1996. APS also represents the file format used to store data on the new films magnetic coating.
Archive: Long-term storage of data or images. Generally data will be archived on some form of type of magnetic or optical media such as disk (CF, Click, floppy disk), a tape, or optical media; such as CD-R, CD-RW, MO, or DVD.
Array: An ordered arrangement of data elements. A vector is a one-dimensional array, a matrix is a two-dimensional array. Most programming languages have the ability to store and manipulate arrays in one or more dimensions. Multidimensional arrays are used extensively in scientific simulation and mathematical processing; however, an array can be as simple as a pricing table held in memory for instant access by an order entry program.
Artifact: An undesirable degradation of an electronic image. Usually occurs during the electronic capture, manipulation, or output of an image.
ASIC Application Specific Integrated Circuit. Pronounced "A-sick." A chip that is custom-designed for a specific application rather than a general-purpose chip such as a microprocessor. The use of ASICs improve performance over general-purpose CPUs, because ASICs are "hardwired" to do a specific job and do not incur the overhead of fetching and interpreting stored instructions. An ASIC chip performs an electronic operation as fast as it is possible to do so, providing, of course, that the circuit design is efficiently designed. There are many varieties of ASIC manufacturing, including custom built circuits from scratch, which is the most time consuming and complicated, to using gate arrays, standard cells and programmable logic devices.
ASIC Chipset: A group of ASIC chips designed to work as a unit to perform a function. For example, a modem chipset contains all the primary circuits for transmitting and receiving. A PC chipset provides the electronic interfaces between all subsystems. A set of ASICs that can be combined as building blocks to accomplish an objective.
Aspect Ratio: The ratio of horizontal to vertical dimensions of an image. For comparison:
-35mm film is 38 mm x 24 mm, or 3:2 (1.5)
-NTSC Television is 4:3 (1.33)
-High-Definition TV (HDTV) is 16:9 (1.77)
-4X5 film is 5:4 (1.25)
-EFS-1 is 1280:1024 (1.25)
Auto: Exposure Feature that automatically sets focus, white balance, shutter speed and iris settings to suit the filming needs of different situations and environments.
Auto Focus: Feature that causes the camera to automatically focus on whatever is in the center of the len's viewing area, eliminating the need for you to manually adjust the lens.
Auto Print: A printer function on some printers that allows images to be printed from a memory Card such as CompactFlash, Smart Media, PC Card.
Background Processing: A feature that enables the computer operator to continue working while the computer executes another action, such as spooling data to a printer
Banding: An artifact of color gradation in computer imaging, when graduated colors break into larger blocks of a single color, reducing the "smooth" look of a proper gradation
Bandwidth: Defines the amount of information that can travel between two points in a specific time
Bayer Pattern: A pattern of four pixels in an imaging array that are color-filtered and algorithmically processed in order to determine color of a scene. A Bayer pattern is a technique that assigns blue, red, green, and another green to a pattern of four pixels. The four pixels are then processed to determine the color that the imager sees at that location on the imaging array.
BBS: Bulletin Board Service. A dial-up computer service accessible by modem, usually maintained by a manufacturer, distributor, or private company used for 2-way computer-to-computer communications, to download patches and utilities, to allow users to ask questions and access information, to receive company announcements, etc.
Binary: A coding or counting system with only two symbols or conditions (off/on, zero/one, mark/space, high/low). The binary system is the basis for storing data in computers.
Bit: A binary digit, a fundamental digital quantity representing either 1 or 0 (on or off)
Bit Depth: The number of bits used to represent each dot in the digitized representation of a graphic image. The larger the number of bits used to represent a dot, the more colors and/or shades of gray that can be rendered.
Bitmap: A computer rendering of a graphics image that consists of rows and columns of dots. The image is made up of dots, or pixels. Refers to a raster image, in which the image consists of rows or pixels rather than vector coordinates. A dot is represented by one or more bits of data. The more bits used to represent a dot, the more colors and shades of gray that can be rendered.
Bluetooth: Bluetooth Special Interest Group, www.bluetooth.com. A consortium of computer and telecommunications companies founded in 1998 by Ericsson, IBM, Intel, Nokia and Toshiba. It supports an open specification for wireless, short-range transmission between mobile PCs, mobile phones and other portable devices. Bluetooth provides up to 720 Kbps data transfer within a range of 40 feet. Unlike IrDA which is a line of sight technology and requires that the devices be aimed at each other, Bluetooth uses radio waves, which are omnidirectional and can transmit through walls. The technology uses the 2.4GHz Industrial Scientific Medical (ISM) frequency band, which is not licensed by the FCC. This set of frequencies is used by other wireless LANs and telecommunications systems. When there is interference from other devices, the transmission does not stop, but its speed is downgraded. The name Bluetooth comes from King Harold Bluetooth of Denmark. Ericsson (Scandinavian company) was the first to develop this specification.
BMP: The file format, or extension, for a bit-mapped graphics file format for Windows which stores images as a grid of dots or pixels. In Windows, or DOS, an bitmap file would be named something like: image01.bmp where the three letters after the Period (.) are known as the extension. The BMP extension identifies the file as a bitmap type
Brightness: The value of a pixel in an electronic image, representing its lightness value from black to white. Usually defined as brightness levels ranging in value from 0 (black) to 255 (white).
Buffer: A special area set aside either in hardware or software for temporary. Usually, the bigger the buffer, the faster the computer can process other data
Bundled Software: Software applications that are often provided with a product such as digital camera. Bundled software enhance a product by offering complementary capabilities such as image manipulation capability. Most digital cameras come with software for transferring pictures to the computer which includes a Twain driver and an imaging application.
Byte: An ensemble of eight bits of memory in a computer



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