C
Calibration: Adjusting the color of one device relative to another, such as a monitor to a printer, or a scanner to a film recorder. Or, it may be the process of adjusting the color of one device to some established standard or color pattern.
 
CCD: Acronym for Charge Coupled Device (CCD). An imaging device that converts light into proportional (analog) electrical current. A CCD has layered filters over its detecting area that divide the spectrum of color into red, green and blue for digital processing by the camera. The two main types of CCDs are linear arrays used in flatbed scanners, digital copiers, and graphic arts scanners, and area arrays used in camcorders, still-video cameras, many digital cameras, and high-performance scanners.
 
CD: Compact Disc. The abbreviation for compact disc, a laser-encoded plastic medium designed to store a large amount of data. A variety of CD formats are available for use by computers.
 
CD drive: A drive mechanism for recording or playing CDs. The most common types are CD-ROM, MO (magneto-optical), and WORM (Write Once, Read Many)
 
CD-ROM: Compact Disc - Read Only Memory. A non-rewriteable CD used by a computer as a storage medium for data
 
Channel: One piece of information stored with an image. True color images, for instance, have three channels-red, green and blue
 
Chemical or Conventional Film: The film used in common film cameras that is based upon silver-halide chemistry.
 
Chipset: A group of chips designed to work as a unit to perform a function. For example, a modem chipset contains all the primary circuits for transmitting and receiving. A PC chipset provides the electronic interfaces between all subsystems.
 
Chroma: The color of an image element (pixel). Chroma is made up of saturation + hue values, but separate from the luminance value
 
Clik!: Clik! disks are small, removable storage disks of 40MB capacity by Iomega. Clik! offers a simple, cost-effective, mobile storage solution.
 
Clock Signals: A clock is an internal timing device. Clock signals are the timing pulses generated by a clock. Using a quartz crystal, the CPU clock breathes life into the CPU by feeding it a constant flow of pulses. For example, a 200MHz CPU receives 200 million pulses per second. Similarly, in a communications device, the clock synchronizes the data pulses between sender and receiver. A real-time clock keeps track of the time of day and makes this data available to the software. A timesharing clock interrupts the CPU at regular intervals and allows the operating system to divide its time between active users and/or applications.
 
CMOS: (Complementary Metal Oxide Silicon) Pronounced "C moss." A type of imaging integrated circuit device widely used for processors, memories, and image sensors for digital and video cameras. CMOS imaging sensors require less power to operate than a CCD, but they require more light to capture an image. The EFS-1 uses a 1.3 Million Pixel CMOS array.
 
CMS Color Matching System. A software program (or a software and hardware combination) designed to ensure color matching and calibration between video or computer monitors and any form of hard copy output.
 
CMY Cyan, Magenta, Yellow. The three subtractive color primaries. Dye-sublimation printers, for example, use these three colors on the print ribbons to produce a color print.
 
CMYK: Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, Black. One of several color encoding systems used by printers for combining primary colors to produce a full-color image. In CMYK, colors are expressed by the "subtractive primaries" (cyan, magenta, yellow) and black. Black is called "K" or keyline since black, keylined text appears on this layer. The CMYK color printing system consists of four colors; cyan, magenta, yellow and black..
 
Coated Paper Stock: Paper that has some laminate added to one or both sides to create a higher quality print
 
Color Correction: The process of correcting or enhancing the color of an image
 
Color Depth: The number of bits with which a display, printer, or camera can represent colors
 
CompactFlash: A small solid state memory card onto which images from a digital camera (or any file) can be stored. CF is the most popular memory storage card used in digital still cameras.

CF cards can fit into a PC Card (PCMCIA) adapter that can be inserted into a notebook computer PC Card slot.

CF memory cards can also be read directly to a computer equipped with a CF card reader --connected to a PC through either a parallel or a USB port. Mac users can connect and read via USB port.
 
CF+ II: CompactFlash II is a standard that builds upon the basic CF specification. CF+ II is a physically thicker device that includes high-capacity rotating disk drives, such as microdrive.
 
Compatibility: The ability of a software program or hardware device to work with another program or device. In the case of digital cameras, it relates to the type of computer that the camera is designed to work with -- PC, a Macintosh, or both. Adherence to the Twain driver specification ensures compatibility between hardware (camera) and software (application).
 
Composite Video: A video signal produced from a combination of electronic signals. Composite video is the standard television signal
 
Compression: The reduction in the size of a data file in order to conserve file storage space or decrease file transfer time. Compression techniques strive to reduce file size without altering essential information. Compression can be "lossy" (such as JPEG) or "lossless" (such as TIFF LZW). Greater reduction is possible with lossy compression than with lossless schemes. JPEG is a file format that uses compression algorithms to reduce the size of graphics for easy storage and transmission.
 
Continuous Tone: An image where brightness appears consistent and uninterrupted. Each pixel in a continuous tone image file uses at least one byte each for its red, green, and blue values. This permits 256 density levels per color or more than 16 million mixture colors
 
Contouring: A visual effect in an image as a result of low brightness resolution that appears as bands of sharp, distinct, brightness change. Very similar to banding.
 
Contrast: A measure of rate of change of brightness in an image. High contrast implies dark black and bright white content. Medium contrast implies a good spread from black to white. Low contrast implies a small spread of values from black to white
 
CPU: Central Processing Unit. The primary chip in a computer where virtually all information is processed
 
Cropping Tool: The cropping tool simulates the traditional method for cropping-that is, trimming photographs.
 
D
Data:
The generic name for anything input to, output from, or stored in a computer. All data must be in digital format.
 
Default Setting: A preset parameter in computer programs or hardware devices which will be used unless changed by the operator.
 
Diffusion Dithering: A method of dithering that randomly distributes pixels instead of using a set pattern.
 
Digital: A system or device in which information is stored or manipulated by on/off impulses, so that each piece of information has an exact or repeatable value (code)
 
Digital Camera: A device that captures and translates a visual image using a CCD or CMOS sensor so it can be processed, stored, downloaded to and manipulated by a computer. It might also be called a film less camera. Device that captures image into a computer-readable digital format. Digital cameras can be still, video, or a combination of both. A digital camera that stores images on an internal memory chip, removable PC cards, or other digital media. Images can be transferred electronically to a computer for manipulation, e-mailing or website creation
 
Digital Image: An image composed of pixels
 
Digital Printer: A device that is capable of printing pictures or other output from digital devices (i.e. digital cameras, computer).
 
Digitization: The process of converting analog information into digital format for use by a computer
 
Disc: Term used to describe optical storage media (video disc, laser disc, compact disc), as opposed to magnetic storage systems
 
Disk: Term used to describe magnetic storage media (floppy disk, diskette, hard disk), as opposed to optical storage systems
 
Dithering: A method for simulating many colors or shades of gray with only a few. A limited number of same-colored pixels located close together is seen as a new color
 
Dot Matrix: A printer technology that uses dots to create an image
 
Download: The transfer of files, images, or other information from one piece of equipment to another
 
DPI: Dots Per Inch. A measurement of resolution of a printer or video monitor based on dot density. For example, laser printers have a resolution of 300 dpi, most monitors 72 dpi, most PostScript imagesetters 1200 to 2450 dpi. The measurement can also relate to pixels in an input file, or line screen dots (halftone screen) in a prepress output film.
 
Driver: A software utility designed to tell a computer how to operate an external physical device. For instance, to operate a camera, printer, or a scanner a computer will need a specific driver.
 
Dye Thermal Sublimation: A printing technology using continuous color tones. This technology allows the dot intensity to vary and to create many colors. The dyes are vaporized onto the paper using heat and pressure. They and diffused across a small gap to the paper or transparency. Semi-transparent dots of cyan, magenta and yellow of varying intensities (usually 256 intensities) are overprinted to create more than 16 million hues. Thermal dye printers require special coated paper and typically use three or four color ribbons. The first three ribbons are often CYM and the fourth ribbon is often a clear overcoat. Higher end dye-sub printers use CMY and K. Unlike other printer technologies, dye-sublimation printers require their own special media consisting of printer ribbons and laminated printer paper. Images printed with dye-sublimation printers are near picture quality.
 
Dynamic range: Dynamic range quantifies the range of signals that a device (sensor) can address (detect and process) from the weakest to the strongest. Dynamic range is used as a figure of merit to quantify the ability of a camera's imaging array to capture a full range of shadows and highlights. The greater (wider) the dynamic range, the wider the range of tones, from dark to very light, that can be captured.
 
E
(e)film: The (e)film cartridge is the "digital film" of the Electronic Film System -1. It is a 1.3 MP digital still camera. The (e)film cartridge inserts into your camera body for capturing images. For downloading images, the (e)film cartridge is placed into the (e)port carrier.
 
(e)port: The (e)port carrier is home to the (e)film cartridge whenever the (e)film cartridge is outside of your 35 mm SLR. (e)port provides not only a safe, clean, secure environment for the (e)film cartridge, but it also serves as the interface by which you may download your images by either USB or PC card (PCMCIA) to your computer.
 
(e)box: The (e)box enables you to transfer images from (e)film/(e)port to a Compact Flash storage memory device. In a situation where you are away from your computer (in the field) or it is not convenient to download images to your computer you may transfer the images from (e)film/(e)port to a CompactFlash memory card for intermediate storage. After transferring images from (e)film to a CF card your (e)film is ready to be used again.
 
EFS-1: Electronic Film System, by Silicon Film Technologies. The Electronic Film System-1 includes the (e)film cartridge, the (e)port carrier, (e)box storage module, a USB cable to link to your personal computer, software drivers, image editing and manipulation software, and field of view guide. EFS-1 simplifies the digital experience and limits the number of steps and parts required providing an enjoyable and successful photographic session. The EFS-1 is a unique technological innovation that enables you to bridge the gap between traditional film photography and digital imaging.
 
EPS: Encapsulated PostScript. A graphic file format to allow exchange of PostScript graphic files (image information) between application programs. A standard file format for high-resolution PostScript illustrations
 
Ethernet: An inexpensive, widely used local area network for data transmission between interconnected computers, transmitting data at up to100 million bits per second.
 
EXIF: Exchangeable Image Format. A file format used in many consumer digital cameras.
 
Export: The process of transporting data from one computer, program, type of file format, or device to another

 

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