L
LAN:
Local Area Network. A communications network that's physically connected by cables. It enables a group of computers to exchange files and share peripherals.
 
Laser Printer: A printer using laser copier technology to produce high-quality printed material from computer data. The laser charges an electrostatically sensitive drum to accept carbon-based toners. The toner is then transferred and fused to paper or transparency material.
 
LCD: Liquid Crystal Display. A flat panel of tiny cells used on mobile computers, palm computing devices, and many consumer digital cameras to display information and images.
 
LCD status window: LCD display that provides information on camera activities and status, such as number of images taken, resolution setting, flash mode, fault indicator, low battery, memory remaining, etc.
 
Lossless compression: Reduces the size of files by creating internal shorthand that rebuilds the data as it originally was before the compression. Thus, it is said to be non-destructive to image data when used.
 
Lossy compression: A method of reducing image file size by discarding some data, causing a slight degradation of image quality. JPEG is a lossy compression method.
 
LPI: Lines per Inch. The frequency of horizontal and vertical lines in a halftone screen
 
Lux: A unit used to measure light
 
M
MAC: A family of personal computers from Apple, introduced in 1984. It was the first computer to popularize the graphical user interface (GUI), which, along with its hardware architecture, has provided a measure of consistency and ease of use that is unmatched. The Macintosh family is the largest non-IBM compatible personal computer series in use in what is essentially a PC versus Mac world. The first Mac had only a floppy disk and 128K of memory. Its "high-rise" cabinet and built-in 9" monochrome screen were unique. Maintained for a number of years and streamlined in its Classic model, the high-rise machine has long since given way to more traditional cabinetry. The first Macs were powered by Motorola's 32-bit 680x0 family of CPUs. In 1994, Apple introduced the PowerMacs, the next generation of Macintoshes, which use the PowerPC CPU chip. PowerMacs run native PowerPC applications and emulate traditional Mac 680x0 applications. DOS and Windows applications can be run with Insignia Solution's SoftWindows.
 
Macros Focus: Focusing range that allows you to take close-up pictures. A setting that allows a camera to focus on objects which are very near. It is a feature found on some 35mm, APS, and digital cameras.
 
Marquee: The outline of dots created by the selection tool on an image when an operator is performing a task such as cropping, cutting, drawing a mask, etc.
 
Mask: A defined area used to limit the effect of image-editing operations to certain regions of the image. In an electronic imaging system, masks are drawn manually (with a stylus or mouse) or created automatically--keyed to specific density levels or hue, saturation and luminance values in the image. It is similar to photographic lith masking in an enlarger
 
Megabyte (MB): An amount of computer memory consisting of about one million bytes. One MB equals 1,024 kilobytes or 1,048,576 bytes
 
Megapixel: One million-pixels. 1,048,576 pixels to be exact
 
Memory Card: A credit-card-sized memory module used as an additional disk or disk alternative in laptops and palmtops. Called IC cards, ROM cards and RAM cards, they use a variety of chip types, including RAM, ROM, EEPROM and flash memory. RAM cards used in this manner contain a battery to keep the cells charged. Note that when you add more memory in a laptop, the plug-in cards may also be called memory cards or RAM cards, but these are not substitutes for disk. They extend the computer's normal RAM memory and are typically contained on proprietary plug-in modules. The memory card that functions as a disk typically uses the PCMCIA architecture and requires special software that accompanies the computer.
 
Microdrive: Microdrive is a micro-miniature high-capacity rotating disk drive that is slightly larger (thicker) than CompactFlash card. Microdrive conforms to the CF+ II standard that builds upon the basic CF specification. CF+ II microdrives are available in capacities of 170 MB and 340 MB.
 
Miniature Card: A miniature memory card, similar in size to CompactFlash card, developed by Intel. It could store images from a digital camera. It was used on the first HP PhotoSmart digital still camera.
 
Modem: A device that converts digital computer data into signals for transmission over telephone lines. (MODulator/DEModulator)
 
Moire: A visible pattern that occurs when one or more halftone screens are misregistered in a color image
 
Morphing: A special effect used in motion pictures and video to produce a smooth transformation from one object or shape to another
 
Metal Oxide Semiconductor: Pronounced "moss." One of two major categories of chip design (the other is bipolar). It derives its name from its use of metal, oxide and semiconductor layers. There are several varieties of MOS technologies, including PMOS, NMOS and CMOS.
 
Micro-controller: A small electronic component that controls the operations of other electronic devices in an electronic circuit. Think of a micro-controller as a small air traffic control tower at an airport, that coordinates the operation of devices within its airspace. EFS-1 uses microcontrollers in both (e)film cartridge and the (e)box storage module.
 
MIPS: Million Instructions Per Second. A measurement of the rate, or speed at which a computing device can process or execute lines of instructions, or computer code.
 
N
Network:
A group of computers connected to communicate with each other, share resources and peripherals.
 
NiCD: Nickel-cadmium rechargeable battery that is used to power some digital cameras
 
NiMH: Nickel Metal Hydride battery technology. A rechargeable battery chemistry that is becoming increasing popular for consumer digital cameras. It has been a very popular power source for cellular telephones. NiMH batteries are rechargeable but do not experience the "memory" issues associated with other rechargeable battery technologies.
 
Non-Volatile Memory: Memory that holds its content without power. ROMs, PROMs, EPROMs and flash memory are examples. Disks and tapes may be called non-volatile memory, but they are usually considered storage devices. Sometimes the term refers to memory that is inherently volatile, but maintains its content because it is connected to a battery at all times.
 
NTSC: National Television Standards Committee. The broadcast standard used in the United States, Canada, Japan, Central America and much of South America. It is a 60 field video format.
 
O
OEM:
Original Equipment Manufacturer. A manufacturer that produces and sells equipment to a reseller. Also refers to the reseller itself. OEM customers either add value to the product before reselling it, private label it, or bundle it with their own products.
 
OLE: Object Linking and Embedding. A standard for combining data from different applications that updates automatically.
 
On-board Processing: The ability to accept data and process it locally (perform calculations), as opposed to sending the data to another processor on another physical device (perhaps on another circuit board in the system).
 
Optical Resolution: A measure of the ability of an optical system to resolve a scene or an object, often measured in line pairs per millimeter.
 
P
PAL:
Phase Alternating Line. The television and video broadcast-quality format used primarily in Europe. A 50-field video format.
 
PC: Personal Computer
 
PC Card: Also known as PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association) card. A plug-in/removable credit-card size circuit card offering a function (such as a modem or network card), or memory storage for captured images. These cards provide an easy interface to notebook computers and PCs equipped with card readers. The (e)port carrier is designed as a PC card interface. This allows you to insert the (e)port directly into a PC card slot (on a notebook or laptop computer) so that you may transfer the raw images from (e)film to your computer for subsequent processing. See also PCMCIA.
 
PC Type II Card: Also known as PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association) type II card. A plug-in/removable credit-card size circuit card offering a function (such as a modem or network card), or memory storage for captured images which conforms to PCMCIA standard, type II. The PCMCIA standard has three types. Physically, type I cards are 3mm in thickness, type II cards are 5.5 mm, and type III cards are 10 mm. These cards provide an easy interface to notebook computers and PCs equipped with card readers. The (e)port carrier is designed as a PC card Type II interface. This allows you to insert the (e)port directly into a PC card slot (on a notebook or laptop computer) so that you may transfer the raw images from (e)film to your computer for subsequent processing. See also PCMCIA.
 
PCMCIA: Personal Computer Memory Card International Association. A standard format for credit-card-size expansion cards used to add storage capacity to a computer. PCMCIA is the formal technical acronym for PC cards.
 
PCMCIA Compatibility: The ability to engage a PCMCIA slot
 
Peripheral: A term used to collectively describe computer hardware accessories such as printers, modems, scanners, and even digital cameras.
 
Photo-Electric Efficiency: The measure of the efficiency or effectiveness of a photosensitive device (such as an image sensor) to convert incident photons (light) into electrical current or charge.
 
Photo YCC: A color encoding scheme developed Image PAC file format
 
PICT: A graphics file format used primarily on Macintosh computers. PICT files can contain both object-oriented and bit-mapped graphics. There are two types: PICT I and PICT II. PICT II supports color up to 24-bit. A standard file format for bit-mapped and object-oriented graphic files.
 
Picture Disc: An option to traditional photofinishing. Picture Disk CDs hold up to 28 pictures and provide a CD in addition to negatives and prints.
 
Pixel Short for picture element (PICture Element.) The smallest viewable element of a digitized image. Imaging sensors are manufactured in a physical (two-dimensional) array of consisting of thousands of photosensitive cells. Each cell is called a pixel. For a computer monitor or display pixels are the tiny points of light that make up a picture on a computer screen. The greater the pixel count of an imager, the higher the spatial resolution of its image. The EFS-1 features a 1.3 million pixel-imaging array.
 
PlC: A standard file format for animation files
 
Plug and Play: Ability of an operating system to identify a peripheral or other computing device (modem, monitor, display adapter) and to automatically configure the system to incorporate the device. Also known as PnP.
 
PostScript: A page description computer language developed by Adobe Systems, Inc. to control precisely how and where shapes and type will appear on a page. Software and hardware may be described as being PostScript compatible
 
Printer Font: Fonts, similar to those used in computers, that can be reproduced by a printer
 
Prosumer: Professional consumer. A class of customer whom tend to purchase ?best-of-class? products and merchandise. The products prosumers purchase may be of a consumer class (scanners, CD players, audio equipment, cameras, video equipment), but their purchase preference is towards the high-end of the market. In terms of purchasing criteria, quality and performance outrank cost of ownership. Prosumers are on the fringe of making professional-class equipment purchases. Prosumers are often professionals seeking to purchase products just below the ?knee? of the price-performance curve. The EFS-1 is a prosumer product, appealing to photographic professionals and prosumers.
 
Pure Images: Digital images that contain ?pure? or ?raw? image data that has not been compressed or modified in any way. Pure images may, however, be encoded in a lossless mode for purposes of efficient data storage. The EFS-1 stores all images in a raw image format inside the EFS-1 cartridge.
 
Q
QVGA:
Quarter VGA. An image that is 320 x 240 pixels. This can also refer to an imaging device that produces QVGA images. A QVGA image is one-quarter the size (area) of a VGA image which is 640 x 480. QVGA was a popular image size for early consumer digital still cameras and desktop video conferencing cameras. 320 x 240 represents an aspect ratio of 4:3 (1.3) which conforms to the frame aspect ratio of NTSC video.

 

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