R
RAM: RAM is usually volatile memory, meaning that when the computer is turned off the contents of the memory are lost. A large amount of RAM usually offers faster manipulation or faster background processing.
 
Raster: Raster images are made up of individual dots; each of which have a defined value that precisely identifies its specific color, size and place within the image. (Also known as bitmapped images.)
 
Raw Image: A unprocessed digital image that contains all of the original sensor pixel data. Raw image data is the purest form of sensor data that can be considered as the pure, original image. The raw data must be processed into a standard image file format for viewing.
 
Real Time Image Processing: A data processing system that responds immediately to the user. Image processing that executes each function immediately and displays it at a high enough resolution to be viewed.
 
Rectangular Pixels: Some CCD-based consumer-class digital cameras utilize camcorder imaging technology based upon rectangular pixels. This evolved from the fact that TV displays are rectangular. Computers monitors actually display square pixels. Rectangular pixels must be adjusted to display on a computer monitor.
 
Refresh Rate: The rate at which an image appears on an LCD or CRT display. The faster the rate, the more stable an image will appear on the screen to the user.
 
Removable Media: Any storage medium that can be removed from a digital camera or drive. This is a broad, general category that includes any storage memory device that can be physically removed from a computer or computing device. The category can include PC (PCMCIA) cards, floppy disks, CD-R, CD-RW, CompactFlash, Click!, Smart Media, Multimedia cards, MO, tapes, zip or jaz disks, and others.
 
Render: The final step of an image transformation or three-dimensional scene through which a new image is refreshed on the screen.
 
Resize: To alter the resolution, or the horizontal and/or vertical size of an image
 
Resolution: Resolution is a term that is used differently in different contexts within digital imaging. This is a source of confusion for many. Digital cameras use the term resolution to describe their total spatial resolution in terms like: 640 x 480, 1052 x 768, or 1280 x 1024. The EFS-1 has an image resolution of 1280 x 1024. Spatial resolution is expressed as the number of horizontal pixels (columns) by the number of vertical pixels (rows) of an image. In this context, resolution is used as a measure of sharpness of an image. The higher the resolution, the sharper the image. Perhaps a better term for the resolution of a digital camera image would be frame size. Scanners, printers, and photo imaging software also use the term resolution as a figure of merit, but express resolution in terms of dpi (dots per inch) or lpi (lines per inch). For a scanner, this refers to optical resolution. This quantifies the ability of the device to resolve (see or print) an object in terms of the number of dots, pixels, or lines per inch. Perhaps a better term for the resolution of an image file would be density. A digital camera can produce an image with a spatial resolution (frame size) of 1024 x 768. Yet it may have an image file resolution (density) of 72 dpi (or pixels) per inch.
 
RGB: Short for Red, Green, and Blue; the primary colors used to simulate natural color on computer monitors and television sets.
 
RGB Filters: Red, Green, and Blue filters. Optical filters which are used to filter (or pass) only red, green, or blue light. Image sensors, such as the one used in EFS-1 do not ?see? color. Image sensors only react to photons (incident light) and count the intensity. By applying Red, Green, and Blue filters to an imaging array we can decipher the color of an image by first filtering (sorting) and then measuring the intensity of the red, green, and blue light reflected or transmitted by an image. Once the RGB components are measured, they are processed and algorithmically combined to determine the correct color.
 
RIP: Raster Image Processor. A piece of hardware or software that converts object-oriented graphics and fonts into the bit maps required for output on a printer.
 
ROM: Read Only Memory. ROM can be read but not updated or altered. Usually ROM refers to specific electronics in a computer. However non-alterable disks like CD ROMs are another type of read only storage. Read Only Memory is non-volatile and it does not disappear when power is shut off.
 
S
Saturation: The degree to which a color is undiluted by white light. If a color is 100 percent saturated, it contains no white light. If a color has no saturation, it is a shade of gray.
 
Scanner: An optical device that converts images - such as photographs - into digital form so they can be stored and manipulated on a computer. Different methods of illumination transmit light through red, green and blue filters and digitize the image into a stream of pixels. Whereas EFS-1 uses a two-dimension imaging array, scanners commonly use a one-dimensional (linear) array that is physically moved (scanned) past an object. In a flat bed scanner the object lies flat and motionless on a glass panel while the linear array moves past (usually underneath) the scanned object. In a sheet feed scanner, the imager is fixed and the object (photo, or sheet of paper) scrolls, or feeds past the linear array. Hand held scanners are a hybrid approach where the imaging array is located inside a small, handheld device that is passed by the object of interest.
 
SCSI: Small Computer System Interface. A peripheral-device connectivity specification for connecting devices to your PC or Mac. SCSI is very popular in the Mac community and less popular with PCs. Common uses for SCSI include zip drives (Mac), high capacity hard drives, CD-ROM drives, jaz drives, high performance scanners, CD burners, and other devices which require high data bandwidth.
 
SCSI Port: A SCSI port is the connector where you connect or plug-in your SCSI device.
 
Self Timer: Delay timer that allows you to place yourself in the picture
 
Sensor: A device that measures or detects a real world condition, such as motion, heat or light and converts the condition into an analog or digital representation. An optical sensor detects the intensity or brightness of light. EFS-1 uses a CMOS image sensor that is a two-dimensional array of 1.3 million pixels.
 
Sensor Packaging: An imaging sensor must be carefully packaged to keep it flat, to allow for precise readout of the image signals, and to keep in free from harmful environments such as dust, moisture, and air. The EFS-1 imaging sensor is carefully ?packaged? in a precise, flat, hermetically sealed package that features a precision optical window, and a myriad of wires that allows electrical signals to be passed in and out of the package
 
Shutter: Camera component that opens and closes to allow light to reach the image sensor. Film cameras use mechanical shutters, while digital cameras can use either electronic or mechanical shuttering techniques, or a combination of both techniques.
 
Shutter Speed: The amount of time the shutter remains open when you activate the shutter, typically expressed in fractions of a second. The shutter speed controls how long the digital sensor is exposed to light.
 
Silicon Die: Silicon devices and components such as the EFS-1 imaging array are manufactured (fabricated) in groups of dozens or even hundreds of parts on silicon wafers and then cut into smaller devices known as silicon die.
 
Single Lens Reflex (SLR): A camera in which you view the scene through the same lens that takes the picture. SLRs represent the ?high-end? of 35 mm film cameras, as opposed to ?point-n-shoot? cameras (mid-range), or single use cameras (low end). The EFS-1 is designed to allow you to use your existing SLR as a digital camera yielding a digital camera with advantage of high-end photographic equipment.
 
SmartMedia: A small and very thin memory card used in some consumer-class digital cameras to store images. Adapters are available that allow you to adapt SmartMedia to a floppy disk drive, or to a PC Card (PCMCIA) for use in a PC card slot on a notebook computer, or a computer equipped with a card reader.
 
Smoothing: Averaging pixels with their neighbors. It reduces contrast and simulates an out-of-focus image
 
Smooth Gradients: When an image is compressed using a lossy compression algorithm (such as JPEG) it is difficult to compress those parts of an image which exhibit gradual changes in color such as blue sky which fades gradually to the horizon. If the image is compressed too heavily, it can become ?posterized?. Smooth gradients refer to changes in scene content (color, hue & saturation, intensity) that are imperceptible, or at least acceptable, to the eye.
 
Software: Instructions for the computer. A series of instructions that performs a particular task is called a program. The two major categories of software are operating system (OS) software and application software. System software is made up of control programs such as the operating system and database management system (DBMS). Application software is any program that processes data for the user (inventory, payroll, spreadsheet, word processor, etc.). A common misconception is that software is data. It is not. Software tells the hardware how to process the data. Software is "run" whereas data is "processed."
 
Solid-State Devices: Electronic components or circuit made of solid materials, such as transistors, chips and bubble memory. There is no mechanical action in a solid state device, although an unbelievable amount of electromagnetic action takes place within. For data storage, solid state devices are much faster and more reliable than mechanical disks and tapes, but are often more expensive. Although solid state costs continually drop, disks, tapes and optical disks also continue to improve their cost/performance ratio. EFS-1 uses internal solid-state memory to store image data. The (e)box uses Compact Flash memory, which is solid state storage memory.
 
Sound Annotation: Through means of a built-in microphone, a feature that allows you to record sound bites to accompany each picture. Some consumer-class digital cameras include the ability to record several seconds of sound with you digital images.
 
Square Pixels: The shape of the individual pixels generated by some digital cameras, as opposed to rectangular pixels. EFS-1 uses a 1.3 MP imaging array of square pixels. Computer monitor screens display square pixels and therefore better accommodate images created with square pixels.
 
Storage Size: The size or capacity of a storage device usually expressed in terms of bytes. Common storage capacities are expressed in KB (floppy disks), MB (CF, CD) , GB (hard drives, tapes, DVD). Electronic components embedded within an electronic system often define storage in terms of bits because these devices operate at bit-level. Storage devices use bytes as a figure of merit because data files are stored as bytes of data. A single EFS-1 image requires 2 MB of storage capacity. The (e)film cartridge includes 64 MB of internal storage to store 24 raw images
 
SVGA: Super VGA. A common step in the hierarchical classification of resolution. SVGA is 800 x 600. This is a common setting for a computer monitor, but not widely used for digital still cameras. 800 x 600 represents an aspect ratio of 4:3 (1.3) which conforms to the frame aspect ratio of NTSC video.
 
Sweet Spot: A term often used in to describe the "best" part of an optical system. This may refer to the area that offers the highest resolution, best clarity, or least optical distortion. For camera lenses the sweet spot is typically the central region where the optical resolving power is the best. Resolving power tends to diminish, or fall off, towards the edge of a lens. The EFS-1 is deigned to take advantage of the sweet spot of the 35 mm camera into which it is inserted by using the central zone of the optical system. Flatbed scanners often exhibit sweet spots. A uniform pattern placed on a scanner bed may yield an image that is not uniform across the entire scan bed.
 
SXGA: Super XGA. A common step in the hierarchical classification of resolution. SXGA is 1280 x 960. This is a common setting for a computer monitor, but less common for digital still cameras. 1280 x 960 represents an aspect ratio of 4:3 (1.3) which conforms to the frame aspect ratio of NTSC video. The EFS-1 is close to SXGA with a resolution of 1280 x 1024 and an aspect ratio of 5:4 (1.25)
 
T
Thermal Transfer: A printer technology that uses heat to transfer dye onto paper.
 
Thermal Wax Transfer Printer: A medium-resolution color printer. This technology uses wax-based ink to transfer color to paper or transparency. Usually using a CMYK color system, one color is laid down at a time in successive passes. Because the pixel size is not variable, the range of the colors are limited unless dithering is used.
 
Thumbnail: A small, low-resolution version of a larger image file that is used for quick identification or expeditious viewing and/or editing. These small versions of larger graphic images are typically used for indexing, for previewing an image on a display, or printing of index prints.
 
TIFF: Tagged Image File Format. An image-file format (a standard) for high-resolution bit-mapped graphics. TIFF files have cross-platform compatibility. There are several sub-variants to TIFF. The widely used TIFF bitmapped graphics file format was developed by Aldus and Microsoft to handle monochrome, gray scale, 8-and 24-bit color image files. TIFF allows for customization, and several versions have been created, which does not guarantee compatibility between all programs. TIFF files are compressed using several compression methods. LZW (Lempel-Zif-Welsh, a popular data compression technique developed in 1977 by J. Ziv and A Lempel, and later refined by T. Welsh) provides ratios of about 1.5:1 to 2:1. Ratios of 10:1 to 20:1 are possible for documents with lots of white space using ITU Group III & IV compression methods (fax).
 
TIFF/EP: Tag Image File Format for Electronic Photography. A version of TIFF file format used to store non-image data along with many different types of image data.
 
Time/Date Insert: Feature that records date and time information on an image
 
Tonal Variations: Tone is the degree of lightness or darkness in an image print; also referred to as value. Cold tones (bluish) and warm tones (reddish) refer to the color of the image in both black-and-white and color photographs. Tonal variations are changes in tone.
 
True Color: Color that has a depth of 24-bits and 16.7 million colors. The term True Color is used commonly with Macintosh systems (and less commonly on PC systems) to describe display and image properties.
 
TWAIN: Acronym: Technology Without An Interesting Name. A software module/device driver and interface protocol that allows imaging data from devices such as digital cameras and scanners to be transferred to a graphics or imaging application software. Virtually all digital cameras come with a TWAIN driver. TWAIN makes it possible for digital cameras and software to "talk" with one another. TWAIN ensures a high level of hardware and software compatibility between the hardware and software products of many vendors, developers, and manufacturers.
 
U
UGA:
A common step in the hierarchical classification of resolution. UGA is 1600 x 1200. This is a common setting for a computer monitor, and used for some digital still cameras. 1600 x 1200 represents an aspect ratio of 4:3 (1.3) which conforms to the frame aspect ratio of NTSC video.
 
Unsharp Masking: A process by which the apparent detail of an image is increased; generally accomplished by the input scanner or through computer manipulation
 
USB: Universal Serial Bus. USB is a high-speed serial connection between device (peripheral) and your computer. The first consumer digital cameras used a traditional serial port (RS-232) to transfer images from camera to computer. This approach was slow, and burdened with communication port conflicts. In response to serial data connection problems, digital cameras are moving to Universal Serial Bus (USB) connections. The advantages to USB are: the elimination of port conflicts (no more IRQ issues), high-speed data transfer, hot-swap capability, reliable connections and transfers, universal cabling, and connectivity both PC and MAC platforms. The disadvantage to USB is the statistical fact that not every PC has USB. USB began shipping on some PCs in 1997 and virtually all by late 1998. Implementation on laptop and notebook computers occurred even later. Furthermore, Windows 98 is the first operating system to fully integrate USB functionality. Windows 95 users may or may not be able to use USB depending upon which version of Windows 95 you have. Win95 users must have version OSR2 with the USB supplement 2.1. USB is supported for Mac with the iMac and those Macintosh computers with PCI architecture and a USB port.
 
V
VGA: Video Graphics Adapter. A common term that applies to computer monitors as well as digital still cameras. Digital cameras with a resolution of 640 x 480 are called VGA, or VGA-class, cameras. 640 x 480 represents an aspect ratio of 4:3 (1.3) which conforms to the frame aspect ratio of NTSC video.
 
Video Out: A feature of many consumer-class digital cameras that allow you to connect you camera to the Video In port on your TV/Monitor to and display your digital pictures on TV.
 
Viewfinder: Means by which you see what will be captured through the camera lens. For consumer digital cameras there are two types: optical and electronic. Electronic viewfinders may come in the form of an image LCD panel that displays the image to be captured for previewing purposes. An optical viewfinder is like that provided on a 35 mm point-and-shoot camera. EFS-1 is unique in the digital camera market, in that it allows the use of true through-the-lens view finding.
 
Virtual Memory: Disk space on a hard drive that is identified as RAM through the operating system, or other software. Since hard drive memory is often less expensive than additional RAM, it is an inexpensive way to get more memory and increase the operating speed of applications.
 
W
White Balance:
Ability of a camera to correct color and tint when shooting under varying lighting conditions, including daylight, indoor, and fluorescent lighting
 
Wide-Angle lens: A lens with a short focal length, such as 24mm or 28mm, that produces a smaller image of a subject at a given distance than does a normal lens, but also a wider field of view.
 
World Wide Web: An Internet facility that links documents locally and remotely. The Web document is called a Web page, and links in the page let users jump from page to page (hypertext) whether the pages are stored on the same server or on servers around the world. The pages are accessed and read via a Web browser such as Netscape Navigator or Internet Explorer. The Web became the center of Internet activity, because Web pages, containing both text and graphics, were easily accessible via a Web browser. The Web provides point and click interface to the largest collection of online information in the world, and the amount of information is increasing at a staggering rate. The Web is also turning into a multimedia delivery system as new browser features and browser plug-in extensions, coming at a dizzying pace, allow for audio, video, telephony, 3-D animations and videoconferencing over the Net. Newer browsers also support the Java language, which allow applications of all variety to be downloaded from the Net and run locally. The fundamental Web format is a text document embedded with HTML tags that provide the formatting of the page as well as the hypertext links (URLs) to other pages. HTML codes are common alphanumeric characters that can be typed with any text editor or word processor. Numerous Web publishing programs provide a graphical interface for Web page creation and automatically generate the codes. Many word processors and publishing programs also export their existing documents to the HTML format, thus Web pages can be created by users without learning any coding system. The ease of page creation has helped fuel the Web's growth.
 
WORM: Write Once - Read Many. A technology used with optical disks. WORM is a removable data storage media that cannot be changed once written. However, it may be read as many times as desired.
 
WYSIWYG: What You See Is What You Get. A jargon term that refers to the exactness of output, as compared to the image or data exactly as it appears on your screen.
 
X
XGA: In digital cameras XGA refers to a camera which captures images at a resolution of 1024 x 768 pixels. XGA - class digital cameras are also referred to as "800K" pixels. 1024 x 768 represents an aspect ratio of 4:3 (1.3) which conforms to the frame aspect ratio of NTSC video.
 
Y,Z
Yield In semiconductor manufacturing, yield is the percentage of components or devices that work acceptably from one fabrication wafer.
 
Zip disk: A removable, re-writeable storage disk developed by Iomega with capacities of 100 MB and 250 MB. Readers (zip drives) are available in both internal and external configurations for both PC and Macintosh platforms. Zip disks are a cost-effective and transportable storage media. PC platforms use a parallel port interface whereas Macintosh use a SCSI interface. A USB zip drive is available for iMac, and Windows 98 based PCs.
 
Zoom lens: A lens with variable focal length, which can attain sharp focus at any object distance.

 

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